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Sunday, February 2, 2014

Right to health and medical care - Writ petition - some directions are given by Apex court for implementation for CFTPPs workers working in various Thermal power plants in India = Occupational Health and Safety Association … Petitioner Versus Union of India and others … Respondents = 2014 (January part) judis.nic.in/supremecourt/filename=41196

  Right to health and medical care - Writ petition - some directions are given by Apex court for implementation   for CFTPPs workers working in various Thermal power plants in India =
whether  CFTPPs
are complying with safety standards and the rules and  regulations  relating
to the health of the employees working  in  various  CFTPPs  throughout  the
country
 This Court in Consumer Education  &  Research  Centre  and  others  v.
Union of India and others (1995) 3 SCC  42,  has  held  that  
the  right  to
health and medical care  to  protect  one’s  health  and  vigour,  while  in
service or post-retirement,  is  a  fundamental  right  of  a  worker  under
Article 21 read with Articles 39(e), 41, 43, 48-A and all related
Articles and fundamental human rights  to  make  the  life  of  the  workman
meaningful and purposeful with dignity of person.  The Court held  that  the
compelling necessity to work in an industry exposed to  health  hazards  due
to indigence to bread-winning for himself and his dependents should  not  be
at the cost of health and vigour of the workman.

10.   Right to health i.e. right to live  in  a  clean,  hygienic  and  safe
environment is a right flowing from Article 21.  Clean surroundings lead  to
healthy body and healthy mind.  But, unfortunately, for eking  a  livelihood
and for national interest, many  employees  work  in  dangerous,  risky  and
unhygienic environment.  Right to  live  with  human  dignity  enshrined  in
Article 21 derives its life breath from the Directive  Principles  of  State
Policy, particularly clauses (e) and (f) of Articles 39, 41 and  42.   Those
Articles include protection of health and strength of workers and  just  and
humane conditions of work. Those are minimum requirements which  must  exist
to enable a  person  to  live  with  human  dignity.   Every  State  has  an
obligation and duty to provide  at  least  the  minimum  condition  ensuring
human dignity. But when workers are engaged  in  such  hazardous  and  risky
jobs, then  the  responsibility  and  duty  on  the  State  is  double-fold.
Occupational health and safety issues of CFTPPs are associated with  thermal
discharge, air and coal emission, fire hazards, explosion hazards etc.  Dust
emanates  also  contain  free  silica  associated  with  silicosis,  arsenic
leading to skin and lung cancer, coal dust leading to  black  lung  and  the
potential harmful substances.  Necessity for  constant  supervision  and  to
the drive to mitigate the harmful effects  on  the  workers  is  of  extreme
importance. 
Following  are  the  main
suggestions put forward before this Court :

      1.    Comprehensive medical checkup of all workers in all  coal  fired
           thermal power stations by doctors appointed in consultation with
           the trade unions.  First medical check up to be completed within
           six months.  Then to be done on yearly basis.


      2.    Free and comprehensive medical treatment to be provided  to  all
           workers found to be  suffering  from  an  occupational  disease,
           ailment or accident, until cured or until death.


      3.    Services of the workmen not to be terminated during illness  and
           to be treated as if on duty.


      4.     Compensation  to  be  paid  to  workmen  suffering   from   any
           occupational disease, aliment or accident in accordance with the
           provisions of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923.


      5.    Modern  protective  equipment  to  be  provided  to  workmen  as
           recommended by an expert body in  consultation  with  the  trade
           unions.


      6.    Strict control  measures  to  be  immediately  adopted  for  the
           control of dust, heat, noise,  vibration  and  radiation  to  be
           recommended by the National  Institute  of  Occupational  Health
           (NIOH) Ahmadabad, Gujarat.


      7.    All employees to abide by the Code of Practice  on  Occupational
           Safety and Health Audit as developed by  the  Bureau  of  Indian
           Standards.


      8.    Safe methods  be  followed  for  the  handling,  collection  and
           disposal of hazardous waste to be recommended by NIOH.


      9.    Appointment of a Committee of experts by NIOH including  therein
           Trade Union representatives and Health and Safety NGO’s to  look
           into the  issue  of  Health  and  Safety  of  workers  and  make
           recommendations.


The NIOH  in  its  Report  in
2011 has already made its recommendations with respect  to  the  suggestions
made by this  Court  in  its  order  dated  30.1.2008.   Since  the  Central
Government has already accepted suggestions no.1 to 7, at the moment we  are
concerned with suggestions no.8 and 9, which we reiterate as follows :-


      “8.   Safe methods  be  followed  for  the  handling,  collection  and
           disposal of hazardous waste to be recommended by NIOH.


      9.    Appointment of a Committee of experts by NIOH including  therein
           Trade Union representatives and Health and Safety NGO’s to  look
           into the  issue  of  Health  and  Safety  of  workers  and  make
           recommendations.”
 The Government of  India  later  placed  a  Report  of  the  Committee
prepared by the National Institute  of  Occupational  Health  (NIOH)  titled
Environment, Health and Safety Issues in Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  of
the year 2011.

 Report of National Institute  of  Occupational  Health  (NIOH)  titled
Environment, Health and Safety Issues in Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  of
the year 2011 may also be made available by the  Secretary  General  of  the
Supreme Court to the Registrar Generals of the High Courts of the  aforesaid
States.   
We make it clear that the Report is not at  all  comprehensive  in
certain aspects and the  respective  High  Courts  can  examine  the  issues
projected in this Judgment  independently  after  calling  for  the  reports
about the CFTPPs functioning in  their  respective  States.   
The  Registrar
Generals of High Courts of the aforesaid States should place  this  Judgment
before the Chief Justices of the respective States so  as  to  initiate  suo
moto proceedings in the larger interest of the workers working in CFTPPs  in
the respective States.

20.   The Writ Petition is accordingly disposed of.


2014  (January part) judis.nic.in/supremecourt/filename=41196

K.S. RADHAKRISHNAN, A.K. SIKRI
                                                           REPORTABLE
                        IN THE SUPREME COURT OF INDIA
                         CIVIL ORIGINAL JURISDICTION
                     WRIT PETITION (CIVIL) NO.79 OF 2005

Occupational Health and
Safety Association                                   … Petitioner
                       Versus
Union of India and others                        … Respondents


                               J U D G M E N T

K.S. Radhakrishnan, J.

1.     The  Petitioner,  a  non-profit  occupational   health   and   safety
organization, registered under the Societies  Registration  Act,  1860,  has
invoked the extra-ordinary jurisdiction of this Court under  Article  32  of
the Constitution of India seeking the following reliefs :-

      a.    To issue a writ of  mandamus  or  any  other  appropriate  writ,
           order,  or  direction  directing  the   Respondents   to   frame
           guidelines  with  respect  to  occupational  safety  and  health
           regulations to be maintained by various industries;


      b.    To issue a writ of mandamus or any other appropriate writ, order
           or direction directing respondents to appoint and  constitute  a
           committee for the monitoring of the  working  of  thermal  power
           plants in India and to keep check on the health and safety norms
           for the workers working in their power stations;


      c.    To issue a writ of mandamus or any other appropriate writ, order
           or direction directing the respondents to  pay  compensation  to
           the workers who are victims of occupational health disorders and
           to frame a scheme  of  compensation  for  workers  in  cases  of
           occupational health disorders;


      d.    To issue a writ of mandamus or any other appropriate writ, order
           or  direction  directing   the   respondents   to   notify   the
           recommendations as contained in paragraph 35 of the Petition  as
           guidelines to be followed by thermal power plant.


2.    The Petitioner represents about 130 Coal Fired  Thermal  Power  Plants
(CFTPPs) in India spread over  different  States  in  the  country,  but  no
proper occupational health services  with  adequate  facilities  for  health
delivery system or guidelines with respect to  occupational  safety  are  in
place.   Factories  Act,  Boilers  Act,  Employees’  State  Insurance   Act,
Compensation Act, the Water (Prevention and Control of Pollution)  Act,  the
Air (Prevention and Control  of  Pollution)  Act,  Environmental  Protection
Act, etc. are in place, but the  lack  of  proper  health  delivery  system,
evaluation of occupational  health  status  of  workers,  their  safety  and
protection cause serious occupational health hazards.

3.    The Petitioner herein filed I.A. No.1  of  2005  and  2  of  2007  and
highlighted the serious diseases, the workers working in thermal plants  are
suffering from  over  a  period  of  years.  
The  Report  produced  by  the
Petitioner would indicate that  half  of  the  workers  have  lung  function
abnormalities, pulmonary function  test  abnormalities,  senor  neuro  loss,
skin diseases, asthama, and so on.
This Court noticing the same, passed  an
interim order on 30.1.2008, after taking note  of  the  various  suggestions
made at the Bar to reduce the occupational hazards of the employees  working
in various thermal power stations in the country.  Following  are  the  main
suggestions put forward before this Court :

      1.    Comprehensive medical checkup of all workers in all  coal  fired
           thermal power stations by doctors appointed in consultation with
           the trade unions.  First medical check up to be completed within
           six months.  Then to be done on yearly basis.


      2.    Free and comprehensive medical treatment to be provided  to  all
           workers found to be  suffering  from  an  occupational  disease,
           ailment or accident, until cured or until death.


      3.    Services of the workmen not to be terminated during illness  and
           to be treated as if on duty.


      4.     Compensation  to  be  paid  to  workmen  suffering   from   any
           occupational disease, aliment or accident in accordance with the
           provisions of the Workmen’s Compensation Act, 1923.


      5.    Modern  protective  equipment  to  be  provided  to  workmen  as
           recommended by an expert body in  consultation  with  the  trade
           unions.


      6.    Strict control  measures  to  be  immediately  adopted  for  the
           control of dust, heat, noise,  vibration  and  radiation  to  be
           recommended by the National  Institute  of  Occupational  Health
           (NIOH) Ahmadabad, Gujarat.


      7.    All employees to abide by the Code of Practice  on  Occupational
           Safety and Health Audit as developed by  the  Bureau  of  Indian
           Standards.


      8.    Safe methods  be  followed  for  the  handling,  collection  and
           disposal of hazardous waste to be recommended by NIOH.


      9.    Appointment of a Committee of experts by NIOH including  therein
           Trade Union representatives and Health and Safety NGO’s to  look
           into the  issue  of  Health  and  Safety  of  workers  and  make
           recommendations.

4.    Mr. P.P. Malhotra, learned  Additional  Solicitor  General,  submitted
that the suggestions no.1 to 7 have been accepted by the Central  Government
stating that they are broadly covered in  various  existing  enactments  and
consequently  pro-occupational  action  would   be   taken   for   effective
implementation of the relevant laws, in particular, areas covered  by  those
suggestions.  After recording the above submissions,  this  Court  had  also
directed the Ministry of Labour to take steps to see that those  suggestions
and relevant provisions of the various Labour Acts are properly  implemented
to protect the welfare of the employees.  Learned ASG also submitted  before
the Court that the Central Government would examine  whether  the  remaining
two suggestions i.e. suggestion nos.8 and 9 could  be  implemented  and,  if
so, to what extent.

5.    The Writ Petition again came up  for  hearing  before  this  Court  on
6.9.2010 and this Court passed the following order:
      “Vide order dated January 30, 2008,  Respondent  No.1  had  agreed  to
      Guideline Nos.1 to 7.


      However, time was taken to consider  Guidelines  Nos.8  and  9,  which
      primarily dealt with the appointment of Committee of Experts by  NIOH.
       The constitution of that Committee is also  spelt  out  in  Guideline
      No.9.   Today, when the matter came up for hearing before this  Court,
      learned Solicitor General stated that the  Committee  of  Experts  has
      been duly constituted by NIOH and it will submit its status report  on
      the next occasion.


      The writ petition shall stand over for eight weeks.”

6.    The Government of  India  later  placed  a  Report  of  the  Committee
prepared by the National Institute  of  Occupational  Health  (NIOH)  titled
Environment, Health and Safety Issues in Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  of
the year 2011.

7.    Shri Colin Gonsalves, learned senior counsel, referring to the  above-
mentioned Report, submitted that the Union of India as  also  the  Committee
have misunderstood the scope of the suggestion nos.8 and 9.  Learned  senior
counsel submitted that not much importance was given to the  serious  health
problems being faced by the workers who are working  in  the  thermal  power
plants and the treatment they require as well as the payment  of  wages  and
compensation to those  workers  who  are  suffering  from  serious  illness.
Learned senior counsel pointed out that some urgent steps  should  be  taken
to ensure the health and safety of the workers,  through  comprehensive  and
timely medical examinations, follow-up  treatment  as  well  as  to  provide
compensation for the serious occupational diseases they are suffering  from.
 Even these vital aspects, according to the  learned  senior  counsel,  have
been completely overlooked by the Committee.

8.    Learned ASG submitted that the Report of  the  NIOH  is  comprehensive
and all relevant aspects have been taken care of and that there are  several
laws to protect the health and safety of the workers who are working in  the
various thermal power stations in the country.  Learned ASG  also  submitted
that the Committee has recommended the need of occupational health  services
with adequate facilities for health  delivery  system  and  that  all  power
generating authorities must have well defined  sector-specific  occupational
health safety and environmental  management  framework.   Learned  ASG  also
submitted that the Report would  be  implemented  in  its  true  letter  and
spirit.

9.    This Court in Consumer Education  &  Research  Centre  and  others  v.
Union of India and others (1995) 3 SCC  42,  has  held  that
the  right  to
health and medical care  to  protect  one’s  health  and  vigour,  while  in
service or post-retirement,  is  a  fundamental  right  of  a  worker  under
Article 21 read with Articles 39(e), 41, 43, 48-A and all related
Articles and fundamental human rights  to  make  the  life  of  the  workman
meaningful and purposeful with dignity of person.  The Court held  that  the
compelling necessity to work in an industry exposed to  health  hazards  due
to indigence to bread-winning for himself and his dependents should  not  be
at the cost of health and vigour of the workman.

10.   Right to health i.e. right to live  in  a  clean,  hygienic  and  safe
environment is a right flowing from Article 21.  Clean surroundings lead  to
healthy body and healthy mind.  But, unfortunately, for eking  a  livelihood
and for national interest, many  employees  work  in  dangerous,  risky  and
unhygienic environment.  Right to  live  with  human  dignity  enshrined  in
Article 21 derives its life breath from the Directive  Principles  of  State
Policy, particularly clauses (e) and (f) of Articles 39, 41 and  42.   Those
Articles include protection of health and strength of workers and  just  and
humane conditions of work. Those are minimum requirements which  must  exist
to enable a  person  to  live  with  human  dignity.   Every  State  has  an
obligation and duty to provide  at  least  the  minimum  condition  ensuring
human dignity. But when workers are engaged  in  such  hazardous  and  risky
jobs, then  the  responsibility  and  duty  on  the  State  is  double-fold.
Occupational health and safety issues of CFTPPs are associated with  thermal
discharge, air and coal emission, fire hazards, explosion hazards etc.  Dust
emanates  also  contain  free  silica  associated  with  silicosis,  arsenic
leading to skin and lung cancer, coal dust leading to  black  lung  and  the
potential harmful substances.  Necessity for  constant  supervision  and  to
the drive to mitigate the harmful effects  on  the  workers  is  of  extreme
importance.

11.   India is one of the largest coal producing countries in the world  and
it has numerous CFTPPs requiring nearly 440 million tons of coal  per  year.
We have about 130 CFTPPs in India.  The thermal power plants generate  about
two-third of the electricity consumed in India, while 54.3%  of  the  energy
demand is met by coal fired power generation.  The NIOH  in  its  Report  in
2011 has already made its recommendations with respect  to  the  suggestions
made by this  Court  in  its  order  dated  30.1.2008.   Since  the  Central
Government has already accepted suggestions no.1 to 7, at the moment we  are
concerned with suggestions no.8 and 9, which we reiterate as follows :-


      “8.   Safe methods  be  followed  for  the  handling,  collection  and
           disposal of hazardous waste to be recommended by NIOH.


      9.    Appointment of a Committee of experts by NIOH including  therein
           Trade Union representatives and Health and Safety NGO’s to  look
           into the  issue  of  Health  and  Safety  of  workers  and  make
           recommendations.”


12.    The Report in para 4.1.2 has referred to various health  hazards  and
the same is reproduced hereinbelow :-
      “4.1.2 General
      .     Use of Hazardous Material  for  Insulation:   Certain  materials
           such as asbestos, glass wool etc. are used for insulation. These
           materials are highly dangerous to human health, if inhaled or if
           contacted with  the  eye/skin  surface.    While  handling  such
           materials, the PPE should be provided to the workers as well  as
           proper disposal of waste  asbestos  and  glass  wool  should  be
           ensured.   Nowadays,  safer  substitutes,  such   as   p-aramid,
           polyvinyl alcohol  (PVA),  cellulose,  polyacrylonitrile,  glass
           fibres,  graphite  are  available,  the  use  of  which  may  be
           explored.
      .     Compliance with the provisions of the  Environment  (Protection)
           Act and its amendments from time  to  time  applicable  for  the
           power  plants  with  respect  to  emission  and  discharge,  ash
           utilization and hazardous waste management should be ensured  to
           protect the ambient environment as well  as  maintain  safe  and
           healthy working conditions for the workers.
      .     The generated fly ash need to be utilized as per the CPCB annual
           implementation report on fly ash utilization (2009-10) that 100%
           utilization to be achieved by the power plants, within  5  years
           from the date of notification (refer  to  Table  17,  page  48).
           For new CFTPPs, the fly ash utilization needs to be regulated as
           per the schedule given in Table 17.
      .     It is desirable that the coal handling facilities are mechanized
           and automated to the extent possible.
      .     Occupational health services should be provided for  wide  range
           benefit  to  the  workers.   Broadly,  it  should  contain   the
           facilities for occupational health delivery system with  trained
           manpower   and    infrastructure    including    investigational
           facilities, environmental assessment, evaluation of occupational
           health status and first aid training of the workers  on  regular
           basis.  These services should be independent and  separate  from
           hospital services (curative  service)  but  should  function  in
           liaison with the curative service.
      .     Periodic awareness programmes regarding the  health  and  safety
           with active involvement of  the  workers  should  be  organized,
           covering  each  individual  with  the  minimum  annual   average
           duration  of  8  hours  per  worker.   Regular  community  level
           awareness programmes may be organized in  the  vicinity  of  the
           plant for the family members of the workers.
      .     Periodic  medical  examination  (PME),  as  required  under  the
           Factories Act should be undertaken.  However, the investigations
           performed under the PME should be relevant to the job exposures.
            Since coal/ash handling workers  are  prone  to  dust  exposure
           related diseases, due attention is required  to  those  workers.
           In case of need, the frequency of PME may be scheduled, based on
           observation of the health check-up information.   Providing  PPE
           and re-locating of job for those workers may also be considered.
      .     As per recommendations of the Factories Act, the workers need to
           be  examined  radiologically  (chest  X-ray)  on  yearly  basis.
           However, in order to avoid unnecessary  exposure  of  the  human
           body to the radiation, the regular yearly  chest  X-ray  is  not
           recommended,  unless  urgent  and  essential.   Considering  the
           latency  period  of  development  of   pneumoconiosis,   it   is
           recommended to undergo chest X-ray every two years  for  initial
           10 years and based on  the  progression,  re-scheduling  may  be
           adopted.  After 10 years it should be done on  yearly  basis  or
           earlier depending on the development and/or progression  of  the
           disease.
      .     Health  records  should  be  maintained  in  easily  retrievable
           manner, preferably in electronic form.  The provision should  be
           made to recall the worker, as and when his or her  check  up  is
           due.  Pre-placement medical examination and proper documentation
           of records should be mandatory.
      .     A comprehensive  document  on  environment,  health  and  safety
           specific to coal based thermal power projects should be  framed.
           It should cover the legal provisions,  management  system,  best
           practices, safe operating procedures, etc. for various areas  of
           thermal power plants.   This will serve as a reference  document
           for effective implementation of the provisions.
      .     All CFTPPs should have environmental and occupational health and
           safety management systems in place, which are auditable by third
           party, approved by  the  Govt  of  India  (Ministry  of  Power).
           Participatory management regarding health and  safety  at  plant
           level may be ensured.
      .      The  occupier  of  the  CFTPP  shall  be  responsible  for  the
           compliance   of   provisions   of   the   Factories’   Act   for
           casual/contractual labour on health and safety issues.  In  case
           of women workers, the  provisions  of  the  Factories’  Act,  as
           applicable, shall be given attention.

13.   Para 3.1.2 of the  Report  specifically  refers  to  the  occupational
health and safety issues of workers in CFTPPs.  The Report  also  refers  to
the hazards associated with (a) dust, (b) heat, (c)  noise,  (d)  vibration,
(e) radiation, and (f) disposal of waste.   After dealing with those  health
hazards,  the  Committee  has  stated  that  the  hazards  associated   with
inhalation of  coal  dust  might  result  in  development  of  dust  related
morbidity in  the  form  of  pneumoconiosis  (coal  workers  pneumoconiosis,
silicosis) and non-pneumoconiotic persistent respiratory  morbidities,  such
as chronic bronchitis, emphysema, asthma, etc.   Further,  it  also  pointed
out that  whenever  asbestos  fibres  are  used  for  insulation  and  other
purposes, the possibility of asbestosis among workers due to  inhalation  of
asbestos fibres cannot be ruled out.    The  Report  also  says  that  other
morbidities because of exposure to fly ash, including metallic  constituents
such as lead, arsenic, and mercury might also be present.  Due  to  exposure
to other chemicals used in different operations of CFTPP, the  Report  says,
may also be responsible to adversely affect human health.

14.   Report further  says  that  occupational  exposure  to  high  heat  in
different thermal power plants may also cause heat related  disorders,  like
heat exhaustion.  
Noise and vibration exposures in  higher  doses  than  the
permissible limits may result in noise-induced hearing  loss,  raised  blood
pressure, regional vascular  disorders,  musculo-skeletal  disorders,  human
error,  productivity  loss,  accidents  and  injuries.    
Radiation  hazards
particularly from the generated fly ash and  its  used  products  have  also
been indicated of possible  health  risks.   
Different  chemicals  that  are
often being used in  CFTPPs,  such  as  chlorine,  ammonia,  fuel  oil,  and
released in the working and community environment  may  be  responsible  for
wide range of acute as well as  chronic  health  impairments.   
Since  large
quantities of coal, other  fuels  and  chemicals  are  stored  and  used  in
CFTPPs, the risks of fire and explosion are high,  unless  special  care  is
taken in  handling  the  materials.    
It  may  cause  fire  and  explosion.
Further, it may also be pointed out that  in  various  work  operations  for
manual materials handling, the workers  are  subjected  to  high  degree  of
physical stress, with potential  risks  of  musculo-skeletal  disorders  and
injuries.

15.   In para 3.1.5 the Report  suggests  certain  protective  measures  for
health and safety and also steps to be taken for emergency  preparedness  on
spot/off-spot emergency plans and  also  the  measures  to  be  adopted  for
social welfare.

16.   We may notice, the recommendations made are to be  welcomed,  but  how
far they are put into practice and what  preventive  actions  are  taken  to
protect the workers from the  serious  health-hazards  associated  with  the
work in CFTPPs calls  for  serious  attention.   Many  workers  employed  in
various CFTPPs are reported to be suffering from serious  diseases  referred
to earlier.  What are the steps taken by CFTPPs and the Union of  India  and
the statutory authorities to protect them from serious  health  hazards  and
also the medical treatment extended to  them,  including  compensation  etc.
calls for detailed examination.

17.   We notice that CFTPPs are spread over various States  in  the  country
like Uttar Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh,  and  so  on,
and it would not be practicable for this Court  to  examine  whether  CFTPPs
are complying with safety standards and the rules and  regulations  relating
to the health of the employees working  in  various  CFTPPs  throughout  the
country.  We feel that  these  aspects  could  be  better  examined  by  the
respective  High  Courts  in  whose  jurisdiction  these  power  plants  are
situated.  The High Court should  examine  whether  there  is  adequate  and
effective  health  delivery  system  in  place  and  whether  there  is  any
evaluation of occupational health status of the  workers.   The  High  Court
should also examine whether any effective medical treatment is meted out  to
them.

18.   We, therefore, feel that it is  appropriate  to  relegate  it  to  the
various High Courts to examine these  issues  with  the  assistance  of  the
State Governments after  calling  for  necessary  Reports  from  the  CFTPPs
situated in their respective States.  For the said purpose, we  are  sending
a copy of this Judgment to the Chief Secretaries of  the  respective  States
as well as Registrar Generals of the High Courts of the following States :

        a) Uttar Pradesh
        b) Chhattisgarh
        c) Maharashtra
        d) Andhra Pradesh
        e) West Bengal
        f) Madhya Pradesh
        g) Bihar
        h) Orissa
        i) Haryana
        j) Rajasthan
        k) Punjab
        l) Delhi/NCT Delhi
        m) Gujarat
        n) Karnataka
        o) Kerala
        p) Tamil Nadu
        q) Jharkhand
        r) Assam

19.   Report of National Institute  of  Occupational  Health  (NIOH)  titled
Environment, Health and Safety Issues in Coal Fired Thermal Power Plants  of
the year 2011 may also be made available by the  Secretary  General  of  the
Supreme Court to the Registrar Generals of the High Courts of the  aforesaid
States.  
We make it clear that the Report is not at  all  comprehensive  in
certain aspects and the  respective  High  Courts  can  examine  the  issues
projected in this Judgment  independently  after  calling  for  the  reports
about the CFTPPs functioning in  their  respective  States.  
The  Registrar
Generals of High Courts of the aforesaid States should place  this  Judgment
before the Chief Justices of the respective States so  as  to  initiate  suo
moto proceedings in the larger interest of the workers working in CFTPPs  in
the respective States.

20.   The Writ Petition is accordingly disposed of.




                                        …..………………………J.
                                        (K.S. Radhakrishnan)




                                        ………………………….J.
                                        (A.K. Sikri)
New Delhi,
January 31, 2014.

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